Basics to Harvard Citations and Format

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Citations are important to make work authentic and credible. In this article, you will get a complete guide for Harvard style citations for your paper. Our guidance will make Harvard referencing easier for you.

There are two points in the paper where you have to give credit to the actual work. First is the in-text citations that are added just after the sentence that you take from another source. Second is the complete address of the source that you have to add at the end of the paper under the reference list.

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Referencing Basics

The reference list is the last page of the paper that contains all the sources used by the writer in his work. Each type of citation whether it is APA, MLA, or Chicago carry a specific format to show the source information. Harvard citation also has a specific format that needs to be followed to make it correct. The following are the information and format that reference carries in Harvard style.

  • Reference should indicate the name of the author, publishing date, source title, page number, and more.
  • To give it proper format references should be on a separate sheet.
  • References should be organized or written alphabetically.
  • There should be double space between references.
  • There should be all references for in-text citations.
  • There should be no reference without its intext citation.
  • Intext citation can be used multiple times but references should be written only once.

As you have read, referencing while writing essays is quite easy for Harvard style but intext formation can be technical for you. Details about in-text citation and its complications have been discussed for you.

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In-Text Citations Basics

Either you rephrase someone’s work or take it as a quote you have to create its in-text citation. Intext citation comes just after the paraphrase or quotes you use and it is the short form of complete reference. Under Harvard referencing, in-text citation shows the author's second name, publishing date, and the page number.

For instance, if the author name is Alice Smith then the in-text citation will be like:

Smith (1950, p.112) states., Or (Smith, 1950, p.112)

There can be changes in citation format according to the information available about the source. For example,

  • If the information you have taken is from more than one page then pages will be referred to as pp. instead of p.
  • If there are less than four authors then the format will be like; Smith, Paul, and Millen (1950, p. 112) Or (Smith, Paul, and Millen, 1950, p. 112)
  • If there are more than four authors then the citation will add the surname of the first author only with "et al” as; Smith et al (1950, p.112) or (Smith et al, 1950, p. 112)
  • If you don't know about the author name then the format will be like; (a guide to citation, 1950, p. 112)
  • There are some works done by the same author but at a different period so in such case format for two works will be as; (Smith, 1950a, p. 112) or Smith (1950b p.112)

Format for Different Types of Sources

The writer can use multiple sources like a book, E-book, and articles but their citation formats should be different according to Harvard style. You can learn how to cite a specific type of source in Harvard style while online essay writing from the following detail.

  • If you have to add the reference for a book then its format will be as; surname (s), initials. Publishing year, title with book’s edition. city of publication; the name of the publisher.
  • Format for article reference in Harvard style will be as; the name of the author. (year) article title, newspaper title, volume, page number.
  • If you are using a non-print source like a TV program or film then its format will be as; episode title (year) show title, episode number. Channel name, day of transmission.

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